网站首页 >> 教学资源 >> 题库练习 >> 文章内容

临床医学专业双语班《局部解剖学》期考样题

[日期:2014-05-21]   来源:人体解剖学教研室  作者:人体解剖学教研室   阅读:992次  [字体: ]
一、Type A of multiple choice questions (mcqs)
Directions: There are fifty questions in this section. Below each question are five answers marked A, B, C, D and E; you are required to select the best answer for each question. (Subtotal score: 45, 1 point per question.)
1.         The nerve that can easily be injured during ligation结扎 of the inferior thyroid artery is
A External branch of the superior laryngeal       B Recurrent laryngeal 喉返神经
C Internal branch of the superior laryngeal        D Vagus proper
E Sympathetic trunk
2.         The structure pierced the scalene fissure (斜角肌间隙) should be         
Aaxillary nerve              B subclavian vein
C axillary vein              D phrenic nerve          Esubclavian artery
3.         Which structure does not pass by the external surface of the sternocleidomastoideus
Aexternal jugular vein        Binternal jugular vein        Cplatysma颈阔肌
Dgreat auricular nerve        Esuperficial lateral cervical lymph nodes
4.         The muscle not attaching the hyoid bone is
Asternothyroid muscle        Bdigastric muscle二腹肌        Cthyrohyoid muscle
Domohyoid muscle           Esternohyoid muscle
5.         The correct description of the neck lymph nodes is
AThe angular lymph nodes are localized in a venous angle     
BThe cancerous cells from both stomach canner and esophagus cancer often spreads to the angular lymph nodes
CVirchow’s lymph nodes are positioned in the intersection between the internal jugular vein and the posterior belly of digastric
DThe cancerous cells from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma鼻咽癌 frequently spread to virchow’s lymph nodes        
EAll the above four descriptions are incorrect 
6.         The most reliable statement about the triangles in the neck is supposed to be
AThe submandibular triangles is fenced by mandible下颌骨, mylohyoid muscle下颌舌骨肌and hyoglossus舌骨舌肌
BThe carotid triangle is surrounded by internal carotid artery, external carotid artery and mandible
CThe muscular triangle is fenced by the posterior border of sternocleidomastoideus, anterior border of trapezius and clavicle 
DThe occipital triangle枕三角 of neck is bordered by lower belly of omohyoid肩胛舌骨肌, posterior-boundary of sternocleidomastoideus and clavicle
EAll the above four statements are wrong
7.         In which triangle of the neck will the surgeon make an incision to gain access to trachea? 
A Carotid        B Muscular C Subclavian D Submandibular   E Submental
8.         A patient involved in an automobile accident presents with a sharp object puncture of the middle of the sternum at about the level of the 4th or 5th costal cartilage. If the object also penetrated pericardium and heart wall, which heart chamber would most likely be damaged?
ALeft atrium          BLeft ventricle            CRight ventricle
 DRight atrium         EAscending aorta
9.         The structure cut in the thyroid surgery incision should be
Aprevertebral fascia椎前筋膜     Bthyrohyoid甲状舌骨肌        Ccarotid sheath
Dsternocleidomastoid             Esternothyroid胸骨甲状肌
10.     During a motorcycle accident, an 18-year-old male landed on the right lateral side of his rib cage with his right upper limb abducted. In the hospital he was found to have "winging" of the right scapula. Which nerve was likely damaged in the accident?
AAccessory 副神经                        BLateral pectoral 胸内侧神经  
CLong thoracic胸长神经            D Phrenic               E Vagus
11.     Which posterior mediastinal structure is most closely applied to the posterior surface of the pericardial sac?
Aarch of aorta                 B azygos vein奇静脉      C esophagus 
D thoracic duct 胸导管       E trachea
12.     The ductus arteriosus sometimes remains open after birth, requiring surgical closure. When placing a clamp on the ductus, care must be taken to avoid injury to what important structure immediately dorsal to it?
AAccessory hemiazygos vein副半奇静脉       BLeft internal thoracic artery
      CLeft phrenic nerve                         DThoracic duct
      ELeft recurrent laryngeal nerve
13.     An 8-year-old boy is found to have a mid-line tumor of the thymus gland that is impinging压迫 posteriorly on a blood vessel. The affected vessel is most likely the:
Aleft brachiocephalic vein左头臂静脉       B left pulmonary vein左肺静脉
Cleft bronchial vein                  D right pulmonary artery
     Eright superior intercostal vein
14.     While observing a mastectomy on a 60-year-old female patient, a medical student was asked by the surgeon to help tie off the arteries that supply the medial side of the breast. The artery that gives origin to these small branches is the:
AMusculophrenic膈肌动脉    BInternal thoracic        C Posterior intercostal
 DSuperior epigastric 腹壁上动脉         EThoracoacromial胸肩峰动脉
15.     What structure is situated in the front of the right pulmonary root ?
Aright vagus nerve trunk        Bright recurrent laryngeal nerve
Cazygos vein arch             Dright phrenic nerve      
Eright thoracic sympathetic trunk
16.     The lateral boundary of the cubital fossa is formed by the
AFlexor carpi radialis muscle桡侧腕屈肌        BTendon of the biceps muscle
CBrachialis muscle肱肌                     DBrachioradialis muscle肱桡肌
EPronator teres muscle旋前圆肌
17.     In withdrawing a blood sample from the median cubital vein the needle passes slightly lateral, which nerve might possibly be injured?
ADorsal ulnar cutaneous              B Lateral antebrachial cutaneous
     CMedial antebrachial cutaneous      D Posterior antebrachial cutaneous
    ESuperficial radial
18.     The artery which passes through the quadrangular space四边孔of the posterior shoulder supplies which muscle?
A Deltoid         Blevator scapulae肩胛提肌     Clatissimus dorsi 
Dtrapezius        Esubscapularis肩胛下肌
19.     The pulse of the radial artery at the wrist is felt immediately lateral to which tendon?
AAbductor pollicis longus            BExtensor pollicis longus拇长伸肌
CFlexor carpi radialis桡侧腕屈肌     DFlexor digitorum profundus
EPalmaris longus掌长肌
20.     The axillary nerve arises directly from which part of the brachial plexus?
Ainferior trunk                 B lateral cord           C medial cord
     Dmiddle trunk                  Eposterior cord
21.     While riding a bike, a patient fell against a tree and fractured the shaft of the humerus at midlength. What nerve may be injured because of its close proximity to the injury?
AUlnar                              B Radial              C Axillary
     DMedial antebrachial cutaneous          E Median
22.     Following a car accident in which the patient received a deep laceration on the medial side of his right knee, the patient notices numbness along the medial side of his right leg and foot. He has no motor deficit. The nerve which appears to have been injured is the:
Afemoral nerve           B saphenous nerve隐神经            Csural nerve
     Dsuperficial fibular nerve腓浅神经         E deep fibular nerve
23.     The femoral canal contains the:
ADeep inguinal lymph node(s)      B Femoral artery          C Femoral nerve
     DFemoral vein                   E Ilioinguinal nerve髂腹股沟神经
24.     Which structure does NOT enter or leave the inguinal region by passing deep to the inguinal ligament?
AFemoral artery            B Femoral nerve                  C Femoral vein
     DPsoas major muscle腰大肌        E Round ligament of the uterus 子宫圆韧带
25.     The pulse of the femoral artery is best felt at which superficial reference point?
AAnterior to the ankle joint           B Femoral triangle         C Mid-thigh
     DPopliteal fossa            E Right lateral portion of the hypogastrium 腹下部
26.     What anterior thigh muscle must be retracted收缩to expose the adductor canal and its contents?
AAdductor magnus大收肌            B Gracilis股薄肌         CRectus femoris
     DSartorius缝匠肌                  EVastus intermedius股中间肌
27.     Which of the following is NOT located within lacunae musculorum ? 
Afemoral canal          B Femoral artery          C femoral nerve
     DFemoral vein              E Deep femoral artery
28.     After suffering a deep stab wound in the medial upper quadrant of the right buttock右臀, an emergency room patient found walking to be very difficult. The basic problem was that, during stepping, her left hip sagged down下垂as soon as the left foot was lifted off the ground to swing forward. What nerve was damaged?
A Femoral                  B Inferior gluteal        C Obturator 闭孔神经
     DPudendal阴部神经          E Superior gluteal 臀上神经
29.     the structure that lies closest to the femur in the popliteal fossa is
ADescending genicular artery膝降动脉           BGreater saphenous vein
    CPopliteal artery腘动脉               D Popliteal vein          E Sciatic nerve
30.     A patient complains of localized pain in a swollen lower calf and cannot strongly plantar flex his foot. What tendon may have ruptured?
ACalcaneal 跟腱                 Bperoneus longus腓骨长肌      
C flexor digitorum longus趾长屈肌     Dflexor hallucis longus       
E tibialis anterior胫骨前肌
31.     The most usual site for feeling the pulsations of the dorsalis pedis artery足背动脉in the foot is:
AJust behind the medial malleolus内踝
BJust lateral to the tendon of extensor hallucis longus
CBehind the tendon of peroneus longus
DIn the second dorsal metatarsal space
EJust behind the lateral malleolus.
32.     A patient with a fracture to the left upper tibia was treated with a plaster cast管形石膏. A few days later he started to develop progressive numbness麻木over the dorsum of the foot and weakness in dorsiflexion. The cast was quickly changed and the signs were attributed to nerve compression. The compressed nerve was most likely the:
ATibial       B Obturator       C Sciatic    D Femoral   E Common fibular
33.     The tendon of which muscle forms the patellar ligament髌韧带?
A Tibialis posterior胫骨后肌      B Triceps surae            C Triceps brachii
D Biceps brachii              E Quadriceps femoris
34.     What place is the lowest position in the female peritoneal cavity when the woman is in supine position仰卧位
ADouglas’fossa                      Brectovesical pouch直肠膀胱陷凹
Cvesicouterine pouch膀胱子宫陷凹            D hepatorenal recess肝肾隐窝
EAll the above four places are not right positions
35.     Which structure passes through the deep inguinal ring?
AIliohypogastric nerve                     B Ilioinguinal nerve
CInferior epigastric artery                  DMedial umbilical ligament
ERound ligament of the uterus
36.     A 15-year-old boy was admitted to the emergency room for having large bowel obstruction大肠梗阻resulting from a left-sided indirect inguinal hernia斜疝. The most likely intestinal segment involved in this obstruction is the:
Aascending colon                Bcecum              C descending colon
     Drectum                       Esigmoid colon
37.     A 45-year-old man had developed a direct inguinal hernia several months after having an emergency appendectomy. The examining doctor linked the cause of hernia to accidental nerve injury that happened during appendectomy and weakened the falx inguinalis腹股沟镰. Which nerve had been injured?
Agenitofemoral生殖股神经          Bfemoral nerve            C Ilioinguinal
     DSubcostal                  E T10
 
38.     Visceral pain is often referred to a site on the body wall (where the patient "feels" it) that is innervated by the same spinal cord segment that innervates the visceral organ involved. Pain of appendicitis is often first felt around the umbilicus, indicating that the appendix receives its sympathetic (and thus visceral afferents) from which spinal cord segment?
AT 9       B T 10       C T 11      D T 12        E L 1
39.     According to Couinaud , the division between the true right and left lobes (internal lobes) of the liver may be visualized on the outside of the liver as a plane passing through the:
Agallbladder fossa 胆囊窝and round ligament of liver  肝圆韧带
 Bfalciform ligament镰状韧带and ligamentum venosum静脉韧带
 Cfalciform ligament and right hepatic vein肝静脉
 Dgallbladder fossa and inferior vena cava下腔静脉
 Egallbladder fossa and right triangular ligament三角韧带
40.     Which of the following structures does not lie at least partially in the retroperitoneum?
Aadrenal glandsuprarenal gland     B duodenum            C kidney
     Dpancreas                          E spleen
41.     The fundus of the stomach receives its arterial supply from the:
ASplenic             B Inferior phrenic        C Left gastroepiploic
     DRight gastric                            E Common hepatic
42.     A 50-year-old female patient with severe jaundice黄疸 was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. You suspect that the tumor is located in which portion of the pancreas?
AHead      B Neck    C Body    D Tail       E Uncinate process钩突
43.     A patient was admitted with symptoms of bowel obstruction. Further examination revealed that the obstruction was caused by the nutcracker-like胡桃夹子compression of the bowel between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta. The compressed bowel is most likely the:
ADuodenum                 B Jejunum               C Ileum    
DAscending colon            ETransverse colon
44.     A 58-year-old patient was diagnosed with a severe case of portal hypertension门静脉高压due to alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver. It was determined that a bypass between the vessels of the portal and caval systems was necessary. The plan most likely to be successful is:
ACoronary vein left grastric veinto right gastro-omental vein
     BLeft colic vein to sigmoidal vein       C Inferior mesenteric vein to splenic vein
     DSplenic vein to left renal vein         E Superior rectal vein to inferior rectal vein
45.     The left ovarian  vein usually joins which vein?
AInferior vena cava               B Left renal             C Portal
 DSplenic                       E Superior mesenteric
 
二、       Type B of Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs)
There are five questions in this section. Above a pair of questions are five answers marked A,B,C, D and E; you are supposed to respectively select one answer that best matches each question, and you also have the chances to select each given answer for one or more times. Then, find the number of the question and mark the corresponding letter with a single straight bar on your Machine-Scoring Answer Sheet. (subtotal score: 5, 1 point per question.)
 
Aulnar artery          Bthoracoacromial artery         Cvertebral artery  
Dradial artery         Ecystic artery     
46.     what artery is likely found in triangle of Calot?
47.     The artery passing through clavipectoral fascia is
48.     The pulse of which artery in anatomical snuff  box
 
Acaudate lobe of liver       Bsuperior part of duodenum   Cabdominal aorta    
Dinferior vena cava         Epancreas
49.     The adjacent organs of the medial border  of the left kidney is 
50.     The lower  boundary of the omental foramen网膜孔is      
 
三、       简单题(5题,共25分)
1.何谓胃床5分)
2.简述甲状腺侧叶后方的毗邻关系(6分)
3.简述阑尾常见的位置(5分)
4.肌腱袖由什么肌腱构成?并分别简述支配肌肉的神经(6). 
5.简述腹股沟(Hesselbach)三角的境界(3分)
 
四、改进型分析题:请根据试题要求,注意问题顺序,依次对试题的每个问题进行简要回答(2题,共25)
1.某患者,女性,26岁,因交通事故而入院,入院检查左上腹压痛,血压90/60,心率110/分,呼吸12/分,影像学检查提示左9-11肋骨折和脾破裂。
请问:
1)除了脾外,左上腹尚有什么器官?5分)
2)营养脾的主要动脉是什么?该动脉尚发出哪些分支?(4分)
3)若行脾切除术,你认为什么切口最理想?并简述你的理由。(3分)
2. 患者,男性,50岁,因右侧胸腔积液而入院治疗。为了明确诊断,住院医生行胸腔穿刺术,穿刺点选择在患者右侧腋前线8肋下缘,术后患者出现右侧第8肋至脐之间皮肤有刺痛感和障碍。
请问:
1)为什么选择在第8肋间行胸腔穿刺术? (1)
2)穿刺中依次经过胸壁的哪些层次? (6)
3)术中可能损伤什么结构?用解剖学解释上述的症状? (2
4)与损伤结构伴行的尚有哪些结构?它们排列关系如何?这些结构行走于哪两层肋间肌之间?
5) 穿刺过程如何避免损伤这些结构? (1)
 
五、附加题
本题属于非必答题,学生可以自已选择是否要回答。若答题,所得分数计入其本人总分,超过100分按100分计;若不答题,本题不得分,但也不扣分。
患者,男性,50岁,因直肠癌而入院治疗。入院检查发现直肠癌位于直肠下段,而行直肠下段切除术。术后患者出现尿储留,阴经勃起困难、射精障碍。
请问:
1.根据上述症状,术中可能损伤什么结构? (1
2.直肠前面毗邻的器官有哪些? (4)
3.简述直肠癌可能转移的位置(2
4.除上述症状外,术后尚可能出现哪些功能障碍? (1
5. 若患者为女性,术中损伤上述结构可能出现哪些症状? (2)